Throughout life, cells known as osteoblasts construct bone matrix and fill it with calcium. At the same time, other cells called osteoclasts work to tear down and resorb bone. This fine balance is regulated by many factors, including systemic hormones and cytokines. Bone mass reaches its peak by the middle of the third decade of life and plateaus for about ten years. During this time bone turnover is constant, with bone formation approximately equalling bone resorption.As we age, this fine balance is lost. As women experience more hormone levels shifts than men, the osteoclasts gain the upper hand and bone mass begins to decrease. A part of it is lost before women reach menopause, yet the rate of loss can increase up to tenfold during the first five years after menopause. Bone density loss is not just associated with calcium deficiency, but also with an insufficient intake of nutrients, including magnesium and vitamin D3. For the benefits of calcium in maintaining healthy bones adequate amounts of vitamin D3, zinc, magnesium, manganese and other nutrients should be available. That helps calcium and phosphorus to be incorporated into the bone matrix. Another problem is that many forms of calcium are not particularly well absorbed.Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body, primarily found in bones and teeth. In bone formation, calcium forms crystals that provide strength to maturing bone. While loss of bone mineral density is more common for women, ageing men can experience it too. Both groups may have significant deficits of magnesium, if they do not supplement. Bone Restore now contains 300 mg of magnesium. It is not only needed to maintain strong bones, but it is critical to promoting a healthy vascular system. In fact, magnesium is critical for facilitating hundreds of enzymatic reactions that our bodies require to maintain optimal health.To overcome obstacles that hinder optimal calcium status, Life Extension offers a proprietary mineral formula, Bone Restore, designed to support healthy bone density and strength. This product provides 1200 milligrams of elemental calcium from three different forms, along with the critically important nutrients (magnesium, boron, zinc, silicon, manganese and vitamin D3), needed for healthy bones. Moreover, Bone Restore provides calcium in capsule form to ensure that it breaks down fully in the digestive tract, for better absorption.The boron in this formula, called FruiteX B® OsteoBoron®, is a boron/carbohydrate complex, similar to what is found in fruits and vegetables. While being more bioavailable than boron citrate, it has been proven to have beneficial effects on the strength of bones and joints. It is recommended to not take calcium and other minerals with fibre, because fibre can interfere with their absorption. There is evidence that calcium from supplements and dairy foods may inhibit iron absorption. However, it has been very difficult to distinguish between the effects of calcium on iron absorption and other inhibitory factors, such as phytate. Calcium supplements are best taken during meals. They should always be taken with a full glass of water, juice or other liquid to enhance solubility. If calcium-containing formulas are taken only once per day, they may be best taken in the evening.Vitamin K, as shown in clinical studies, plays a vital role in maintaining your bones healthy. It also functions as a clotting element in the arteries. Poor vitamin K levels affect health of the entire cardiovascular system. Without adequate vitamin K, calcium in the blood can bind to the arterial wall, resulting in calcification. As we age, even low vitamin K deficiency can pose risks to the vascular system. In post-menopausal women, poor vitamin K status is shown to be associated with increased bone loss.Being naturally produced by bacteria in our bowel, it can be found in meat, eggs and dairy products. There are different forms of vitamin K; vitamin K2 has been proven much more beneficial for our bodies than vitamin K1. The MK-7 form of K2 remains bioavailable to the human body over a sustained 24-hour period and to higher levels (seven- to eightfold) during prolonged intake. So it is not surprising that Bone Restore is now available with vitamin K2 (MK-7) for those not getting their vitamin K from Super Booster or Super K.